Dewey conceived schools differently. He envisioned them as learning communities seeing as important ‘the nature of relationships between student and student, student and teacher, and teacher and teacher’ and, of course, with the wider community. Dewey’s ideal for schools was for them to be based on participatory democratic values. In Dewey’s mind such values would be able to tap into, and unleash, the ‘immense intelligence’ of all students. Dewey believed that ‘all those who are affected by social institutions must have a say in producing and managing them’.