Friday, March 25, 2016

Education Readings for creative teachers - UK Academies and Charter Schools; Standardized testing and targets.

By Allan Alach

I welcome suggested articles, so if you come across a gem, email it to me at

The forcible conversion of England’s schools to Academies (Charter Schools)
This announcement by the British government has sent shock waves around the country and mass rebellion is developing. New Zealand teacher John Palethorpe, a relatively recent immigrant f
NZ ACT Party policy
rom the UK, discusses why this is such a giant step into a potential quagmire.
“There is already a growing and vocal opposition to all of the plans outlined above, as well there should. Announcing you’re ditching LEA oversight and support of schools, dumping the need for any school to employ qualified teachers, dropping the National Curriculum, scrapping nationally negotiated terms and conditions and placing schools in a bidding war for new teachers is a huge and complete evidence free attack on the quality and professionalism of education in the UK.”

Forced academisation, shambolic assessment, budgets shrinking, teacher morale in crisis: is this the perfect educational storm?
Another article about the threat to English schools.
“Are we witnessing the final element of the perfect storm for schools?  Probably. This government plans for all schools to become academies certainly suggests we have reached that stage. First of all, a definition: according to one online dictionary, a perfect storm is "a detrimental or calamitous situation or event arising from the powerful combined effect of a unique set of circumstances”. Boy, do we have those circumstances. Unfortunately we have a government totally unaware of what devastation such a storm will have on our profession.”

A Crack in the Dam of Disaster Capitalism Education Reform?
“When the education reform movement kicked into high gear, the promises were grand and the evidence was thin, but now we are beginning to have evidence of how the grand claims have wilted on the vine, and the fruit is rotting all around us.

Blinded by Pseudoscience: Standardized Testing is Modern Day Eugenics
‘Once again, standardized tests are used as the justification for doing something obviously racist. If anyone said, “We’re going to close and privatize all the schools serving minorities and the poor,” people would revolt. However, when you say we’re doing it because of standardized tests – because of science” – people just shrug and say, You can’t argue with that!”’

Why We Don’t Do Art in School (And Why We Should)
“We are now reaping the results of a dedication and devotion to commercialism and consumerism.
If we are to evolve beyond a culture that confuses adolescent posturing with political debate, we’ll need to offer our youngest citizens a climate encouraging freedom of thought, imagination and inquiry. We’ll need to grow a new kind of citizenry. And that means we’ll need to invest in the material conditions that will facilitate the release of every child’s inherent creative talent.”

Standardised teaching
Secret Teacher: our obsession with targets is hurting vulnerable pupils
“The government needs to recognise that there is no such thing as a standard” child. Children don’t develop at the same rate and the increased pressure for them to achieve more and more at a young age won’t change this. All it will do is crush the confidence of those who find it more difficult, for whatever reason – and jeopardise their chances of ever reaching their potential.”

Contributed by Bruce Hammonds:

Growth Mindset, Revisited”
“The growth mindset was intended to help close achievement gaps, not hide them. Renowned psychologist and author Carol Dweck describes her work to help educators adopt a deeper, true growth mindset, one that can show in classroom practice and throughout school systems.”
Watch the first 30 minutes.

When School Leaders Live in the Middle
Won’t happen to me, I said. I can cope. Hah. Famous last words.
“School leaders are faced with stress as part of their daily jobs; however, left unaddressed, stress
has the potential of becoming mentally and physically exhausting. School leaders need opportunities for stress reduction as well as the means to predict and anticipate stress in an effort to minimize its effects. This commentary discusses leadership-related stress and offers strategies to minimize and cope with stress.”

The Destruction of New Zealand's Public Education System
“This government is destroying our amazing collaborative, holistic public education system that recently led the world. They are determined to implement systems that have failed spectacularly overseas. Professional knowledge based on evidence should lead education, not political ideology. What angers me the most is what is being denied to our most vulnerable children when they should be the real focus of spending and any systemic change.”

From Bruce’s ‘goldie oldies’ file:

Developing talent in young people?
“I have always been curious about the early life of talented individuals so I was interested to access a copy of an article written on the subject by Benjamin Bloom published in 1985. I have  wondered what creative individuals like NZ filmmaker Peter Jackson would've been like at school and what kind of school would such creative individuals invent if they were given the challenge?”

What do we all need to be life long learners?
“We need to ask what kind of world our students will be entering. One thing is certain it will not be a predictable one and their 'passport' to the future will need to contain fully developed gifts and talents along with the dispositions to learn from whatever experience they will have to face (in the language of the 'new' curriculum be equipped with 'key competencies'). Our current education system marginalizes student's creativity and talents and this will be worsened with national standards.”

Contributed by Phil Cullen:

High hopes for happy learning
“School is also about learners discovering their aspirations and dreams, with all of these factors not only enhancing learner happiness and well-being, but also making a crucial contribution to their future success in life and work.”

Friday, March 18, 2016

Education Readings; the future of education: /being/creative/smart technology/revolution from the ground up/ here's to the crazy ones

By Allan Alach

I welcome suggested articles, so if you come across a gem, email it to me at

This Is the Future of Education
Heather McQuillan, who provided this, commented that she saw this video by John Spencer, and it really resonated. She advises that John has a great website at and he's one of the brains behind
“You are planting the seeds for a future you could have never imagined on your own. And that right there is the beauty of creative classrooms. That’s the power of innovative teachers. And the truth is, that is why the future of education is you.”

We’re Trying To Do The Wrong Thing Right” in Schools
Another Will Richardson article:
“Whenever I think about the way most schools are structured today, I always come back to the same question: Do we do the things we do because they’re better for kids or because they are easier for us? For instance: separating kids by age in school. Is that something we do because kids learn better that way? Or do we do it because it’s just an easier way organizing our work? I think all of us know the answer to that.”

Learning Is Creative
I haven't included a Steve Wheeler article for a while.
Steve Jobs once said: 'Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn't really do it, they just saw something.It seemed obvious to them after a while. That's because they were able to connect experiences they'd had and synthesise new things.’"

How Einstein Thought: Why Combinatory Play” Is the Secret of Genius
“But taken from a psychological viewpoint, this combinatory play seems to be the essential feature
in productive thought — before there is any connection with logical construction in words or other kinds of signs which can be communicated to others.”

The Overselling of Ed Tech
Alfie Kohn’s latest - a must read.
“There’s a jump-on-the-bandwagon feel to how districts are pouring money into computers and software programs – money that’s badly needed for, say, hiring teachers. But even if ed tech were adopted as thoughtfully as its proponents claim, we’re still left with deep reasons to be concerned about the outmoded model of teaching that it helps to preserve — or at least fails to help us move beyond. To be committed to meaningful learning requires us to view testimonials for technology with a terabyte’s worth of skepticism.”

Smart Technology
In a similar vein, here’s Jamie McKenzie.
“Discerning teachers and students use new technologies when they enhance learning, but they will turn to classical tools when they better serve learning goals. Unfortunately, in some schools, there is pressure from above to make frequent use of new tools whether they advance learning or dilute it. "Doing technology" becomes a goal apart from learning itself.”

Contributed by Bruce Hammonds:

Do we really use what we learn in school?
“If you are older and feel that you don’t understand the world, if you feel powerless and cheated out of life, it just may be because you didn’t study Shakespeare or geometry when you were younger, or because you just got through them instead of getting into them.”

Time to return to creative teachers for inspiration - revolution from the ground up
Bruce’s latest article.
“The point of this blog is to remind teachers that the best way to get great ideas about teaching is
from fellow teachers in your own  own and other schools. Visiting such teachers is the most powerful professional development of all.”

The Power of Great Teaching and High Expectations
“In my mind, the common thread here is that the heart of great teaching, and of great learning, is the bond between teacher and student. Great teachers are passionate about their practice. And it’s from that passion that they are able to able to push students and ignite in them a passion for learning. This was certainly true for me.”

From Bruce’s ‘goldie oldies’ file:

Here's to the crazy ones.
“The crazy teachers know this, developing personalized curriculum for every one of their students, r
ather than fitting them into preplanned curriculum boxes.

Time for a rebirth of the creative spirit.
“The time is right for a true educational revolution!We need to listen to lost voices and rediscover our own.
Who wants to join the fight to return to creative education?”
My most creative teacher Bill Guild

Trust yourself - be a creative teacher
So it is important to clarify what you believe about teaching and learning. This is best done by, reflecting on each teaching moment, by talking with and observing others, and reading whatever you can. From such experiences we build up a comprehensive approach, to which is added, the courage absorbed informally from others you respect who believe in similar things.”

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

New Zealand education:time to return to creative teachers for inspiration - revolution from the ground up ( Sir Ken Robinson)

Based on a visit to a colonial cottage

I have had the opportunity to drop off some material to local schools and it has made me think that it is time for schools to focus on and share the ideas of creative classroom teachers.

It does seem to me that far too much valuable time is spent on complying to requirements from those well removed from the reality of the classroom.  An emphasis on National Standards data comes to mind. And schools are spending too much time taking advice from people whose teaching experience is somewhat suspect.

Gordon Tovey
Made me think of some publications from the past that were based on sharing the creative ideas of real teachers. I am convinced that such creative teachers still inhabit current classrooms but that there inspirational work is not tapped and shared by other schools.

In 1976 I attended a 'The Creative Arts' conference  held in Dunedin and searched for, and found , my copy of the book. The presentation given by the then  National Adviser on art Gordon Tovey drew my attention.

In his presentation Gordon spoke of teachers being to concerned with the verbal and mathematical and not tapping into the students' creative and poetic  potential.

NZEI 1976
Gordon believed it important to draw on the inner personal world of the learner, and as well,  the importance of valuing the various creative artifacts - written, artistic and dramatic that students produce; the world of completed 

 The artistic process is important but so are the finished results and that these ought to represent the diversity of their makers. These need to be valued and celebrated as they give children  meaningful growth and pride of achievement.
Quality observation

 This  is about doing things well and the need to learn techniques and skills in the process.

Gordon and his team of art advisers were seminal in spreading innovative integrated related arts programmes in the 60s and 70s .Perhaps the best known of these teachers was Elwyn Richardson whose book 'In The Early World' ( recently reprinted) remains an inspirational book. Another creative teacher of this era was Sylvia Ashton Warner.

Gordon listed his aims:

Quality achievements
Firstly, to foster through personal and individualised achievement , pride in , and confidence from tangible and rewarding accomplishments.

Secondly, to learn to work with others... to ensure satisfying collective statements.
Collective statement

Thirdly, to come to know and understand the environment, and through intuitive and imaginative powers of expression, become a responsive part of it.

Mastery of technique
Fourthly, to come to understand through aesthetic requirements the need to continually seek  mastery over tools, techniques and grammatical devises, and to value these as vital, essentials parts of expression.

And finally,through these to foster self reliance on firmly based ...attitudes and expressive abilities so as to enable the recurring challenges of change to be met as an inevitable part of growth

This still sounds great to me and easily aligned with the intent of the 2007 New Zealand Curriculum.

Find this book New Plymouth student observing
The art advisers were vital to spread creative teachers ideas. In  1978 the  advisers traveled New Zealand to collect information about creative teachers and published them in a  Department of Education publication 'Art In Schools'. If you can find a copy in your school shelves it is worth a reads.

In our province of Taranaki I worked with a group of teachers to implement the ideas above ( we are included in the book) combining ideas from Elwyn, Sylvia and Gordon Tovery plus an emphasis on   developing inquiry programmes and in turn developing stimulating room environments to celebrate students achievement
One teacher'a creativity - and his students

Several publications  were published  locally and acquired by other teachers at the time. The most impressive was 'A World Of Difference' by Bill Guild. Our work integrated ideas gained from experience and observations of innovative English Junior schools in 1969.
Learning to look

The point of this blog is to remind teachers that the best way to get great ideas about teaching is from fellow teachers in your own  own and other schools.

Visiting such teachers is the most powerful professional development of all.
A must have!!!

My advice is to search such teachers out and, as Sir Ken Robinson title of his latest book is subtitled says begin the 'Revolution from the Ground Up'.

There is no other way.

Imagine the time, skill and pride of achievement

The importance of doing fewer things well

Friday, March 11, 2016

Education Readings : poverty/creativity/inquiry learning and John Hattie ( doubtful data)


By Allan Alach

I welcome suggested articles, so if you come across a gem, email it to me at

What Is a Large Effect Size?
Misleading data???
Anyone familiar with John Hattie’s ‘research’ will have come across the phrase ‘effect size.’ This article explains what this means and in the process fires a few shots at Hattie’s ‘research.’
“Ever since Gene Glass popularized the effect size in the 1970s, readers of research have wanted to know how large an effect size has to be in order to be considered important. Well, stop the presses and sound the trumpet. I am about to tell you.”

Don't stop the music at school
“What some primary teachers are saying is that schools are putting such an emphasis on the publicly "important" subjects of numeracy and literacy (PC words for reading, writing and arithmetic) that artsy subjects like music are being ignored. If music is being marginalised then that's a pity. Music exercises parts of the brain that other subjects don’t.”

Debunking the Myth of the 10,000-Hours Rule: What It Actually Takes to Reach Genius-Level Excellence
It’s not what you do, it’s how you do it.
“Instead, the factor Ericsson and other psychologists have identified as the main predictor of success is deliberate practice persistent training to which you give your full concentration rather than just your time, often guided by a skilled expert, coach, or mentor. It’s a qualitative difference in how you pay attention, not a quantitative measure of clocking in the hours.”

Stop Innovating in Schools. Please.
A powerful article by Will Richardson:
“Innovation in schools of any type needs to start with the idea that the goal is not to force kids to abandon their passions and interests for our curriculum when they come to school, which is what we currently do. Instead, as Sarason says, we must start with their questions and curiosities, and bring our world to them. If we are to develop and sustain the types of learner-citizens that we need in the future, we need to meld the worlds of school and of children, but we start with the children.”

Why I don’t believe that school is a child’s most important job
This is what I think!
“My feelings have changed over the years. Slowly I have come to believe that kids have a right to their own time outside of school, and that we as teachers have no more right to control their evenings and weekends than our bosses should have to control ours. Kids need time to be kids and enjoy their childhood. Now I believe that a child’s most important job is not school, but learning. And these two things are not one and the same.”

The Slavery of the Mind
Here’s a provocative article for you - what do you think?
“The assault on education (public, private and charter alike) is a calculated attempt by very wealthy people, some hiding behind a Corporate name or Foundation, aligned with very powerful politicians working together to take over the root of all individual power… knowledge. The education of the young. Adults need to be convinced that something is the way they are told it is, children inherently take it as fact, no questions asked. And so, our schools are being subjected to a hostile, quasi-corporate/federal takeover.

Contributed by Bruce Hammonds:

Restacking the Deck: How Teachers Can Counteract the Effects of Poverty on the Developing Mind
In a more equitable world there wouldn’t be any poverty.
“In the field of education, teachers and administrators work hard to address the opportunity gap—
or at least its outward symptoms. But what about the effects that we can't see as easily? The role of poverty in shaping the developing brain leads to measurable neurological differences. Understanding those differences can affect how teachers structure their classrooms to better meet the needs of learners.”

Can you spot a good teacher from their characteristics?
“While there is something special about the idea of passing on knowledge, teaching is no more mystical than other professions. Research has shown that some teachers are routinely more successful than others and science can predict who is likely to be the most effective.”

Why creativity needs skeptics
“Its not always easy being the one who asks the tough questions. To be the one scratching your chin and saying why doesnt this work for me?whilst everyone
around you high fives. But questioning, constructive criticism and scepticism are key to improving both creative productivity and creative quality.”

How To Kill Creativity (And How To Rebuild It)
Does this apply to your school? To your classroom?
“Many of our organisations, without realising it, act as inhibitors of innovation.Rules and protocols are put in place — often for very good reasons — that preserve the status quo. Over time, organisations develop a set of social norms — ‘the way we do things around heredesigned to protect the business from failure. One of the biggest inhibitors of innovation is part of human nature itself — the fear of losing what we’ve got.

From Bruce’s ‘goldie oldies’ file:

Myths of Inquiry Based Classrooms
“Canadian educator Sharon Friesen outlines myths of inquiry based classrooms in Canada in her video presentation. Her ideas about how 'knowledge is created' are worth sharing.”

Developing an Inquiry Approach across the curriculum
“All learning is based on curiosity - a need to make personal meaning.It would be a great idea for schools to develop a inquiry approach across the curriculum that all teachers and students are able to articulate. Not that there needs to be cut and tried approach (all Learning Areas have their particular emphasis) but more that the spirit of inquiry should underpin all actions.”

Current education kills creativity

Wednesday, March 09, 2016

Education Review Office School Evaluation and some better Criteria for a 21st C classroom.


Schools are currently working their way through Education Review Office Frameworks and Evaluation Indicators for their School Charters.

Seems like a good idea but, to my mind,  a rather long winded complicated  time consuming ask for schools to comply with. If it does improve student success it will be worth it. If not just another task devised by technocrats who have forgotten what it is like to face up to the reality of school leadership and classroom teaching.
Another task to to please the Ministry/ERO

There are obviously excellent suggestions included in the list of indicators.  It is all part of the Ministry  ideology of making education more efficient through increased standardization, accountability and , with school comparison, competition

It would be more valuable for principals and teachers to read Sir Ken Robinson's latest book Creative Schools - Revolutionizing  Education from the Ground Up'.
A must read book.

Note the phrases 'creative schools' ( impossible  to achieve if tied up with compliance constraints) and 'from the ground up'.

If principals haven't read this book they have missed out on a book which values their ideas as the basis for school improvement rather complying to top down requirements. 

Sir Ken believes that  schools will only be transformed when they develop creative approaches to teaching and learning and writes that the standards approach,  that underpins current New Zealand education, has failed world wide.

A paper published by the NZCER 'Supporting future orientated teaching and learning- a New Zealand perspective' provides a simple set of  guidelines to inform teaching beyond 'ticking the boxes'.

This paper states that ' current educational systems are  not sufficient to address and support learning in the 21st C.  

Below are the questions the paper asks of schools:

1 Is your school personalizing learning basing 'learning around the learner rather than the learner being required to fit the system'? The authors write 'we are not yet seeing the the kinds of "deep personalisation"  argued for by future orientated educationalists'  among them Sir Ken Robinson.

2 Is your school educating for diversity - 'a diversity that encompasses everyone variations'?  A system that 'addresses the needs strengths, interests and aspirations' of all students'. Does you school focus on developing gifts and talents of all students?

3  Is your school ' re-conceptualizing the the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students'? Are your students engaged using knowledge in inventive ways, in new contexts and combinations'; 'equipping people to do things with knowledge' and for students to 'solve problems and find solutions to solve problems and find solutions to challenges as they arise on a " just in time" basis'. The paper states bluntly that this development is not apparent in current schools.

4  Is your school involved in ongoing professional development to achieve such personalisation, diversity 'to change the scripts' for both teachers and students?

5 Has your school developed 'real' partnership with your community. Is your school making use of  expertise of the school community to solve problems?

 The paper asks is your school driven 'by a coherent set of shared ideas about the future of schooling and its purpose and role in building New Zealand's future?

Does your school have a set of learning beliefs that underpin all your teaching and one that teachers( and students and parents) can articulate?

The paper also mentions that (1) current and emerging technologies 'have not yet revolutionized learning' and that this will only develop when teachers  see the potential to transform learning and teaching and (2)  clustering of schools will only be successful when they provide 'opportunities for professional learning and expanding ideas about what is possible'. This is beyond sharing current 'best practice'.

The authors write that 'our education systems and practices are often set up in ways that do not support these principles to operate in practice' and continue, 'we need to reconfigure it in new , more knowledge-centred ways',  and that we need a 'paradigm shift in practice.'

For me this means in the primary school there is a need to make inquiry ( knowledge gaining and using) central and challenging the reactionary use of ability grouping in literary and numeracy and the compartmentalized subject teaching of secondary schools. And for all school to focus on developing the gifts and talents of all students.

And this brings us back to the value of energy being diverted by recent Ministry Evaluation complicated  demands and the need to read the full  NZCER paper and to follow the 'ground -up' revolution written about so powerfully by Sir Ken Robinson

Any thoughts?

Friday, March 04, 2016

Creative teaching readings .Down with algebra? Educational myths.

By Allan Alach

I welcome suggested articles, so if you come across a gem, email it to me at

Does Algebra Get in the Way of Student Success?/ Down With Algebra II!
Here are a couple of links that discuss Andrew Hacker’s book ‘The Math Myth: And Other STEM Delusions.
Hacker’s central argument is that advanced mathematics requirements, like algebra, trigonometry
and calculus, are a harsh and senseless hurdle” keeping far too many Americans from completing their educations and leading productive lives.
He also maintains that there is no proof for a STEM shortage or a skills gap; and that we should pursue numeracy” in education rather than mathematics knowledge.”

Teachers And Professional Collaboration: How Sweden Has Become The ABBA Of Educational Change
Andy Hargreves
Another Andy Hargreaves article:
:Competing reasons have been advanced for Sweden’s educational decline – see here and here. Most have targeted the country’s for-profit free schools and the promotion of divisive parental choice. Opponents blame poor classroom management and failure to control students’ use of mobile phones. But among the most worrying explanations have been those that refer to statistics associated with poor teacher quality. But how do we interpret these data?  “

It’s time to stop wasting money on interactive boards
I investigated these during a sabbatical some years back and came to the same conclusion.
Interactive screens, albeit whiteboards or touch-screen monitors mounted to a wall, are a waste of time and money when you have mobile devices in the classroom.”

Memory, tradition and myths
“The belief that having more information available to us atrophies our brains and that technology is making us stupid is widespread. But is it true?”

Cédric Villani on the 7 Ingredients of Creativity
What does it take to come up with a new idea? In this beautifully illustrated RSA Short, award-
winning mathematician Cédric Villani reveals the seven key ingredients that come together to create breakthrough moments in human knowledge and innovation.”

Farming Children for Profit
A comment on the state on what passes for early childhood education in New Zealand.
“We have increased the numbers within the ECE industry by
promoting quantity, not quality. We have not focused on adding value so that the end product is not something that will provide a good return. We have also ignored the external effects on what we are doing that will have costly implications later. It may be a little callous to refer to children as commodities, but it seems like our world now operates through the language of economics rather than the humanities.

A teacher speaks out: 'I'm effectively being forced out of a career that I wanted to love’
An article from England that will resonate with teachers all over.
“This is compounded by utter frustration that the reason I'm scrabbling around frantically when it's still dark outside, and exhausted and stressed during lessons, is that I was prevented from doing the basics of my job by the aforementioned administrative burden.”

Contributed by Bruce Hammonds:

Why Is It 'Eleven, Twelve' Instead of 'Oneteen, Twoteen’?
Some interesting historical maths to think about.
Kids always notice the weird bits about language better than grownups. Thanks to five-year-old Katie English for this fabulous question!”

5 Tips for Teaching the Tough Kids
“I've had the privilege of teaching some tough kids. I say "privilege" for a reason. Teaching these students pushed me to be a better educator and a more compassionate person. I've detailed below five methods that have reduced misbehavior in my
classroom and, better still, helped transform these students into leaders among their peers.”

Strategies for Reaching Quiet, Disengaged, Struggling, and Troublemaking Students
“Now, after nine years in the classroom and learning from numerous failures, I still don't claim to have mastered the art of teaching or connecting with every kind of student, but I do have some thoughts on how to avoid my rookie mistakes.”

Tapping the Power of Personalized Learning
An introduction to a new book on personalised learning
“This book is about transforming the learning ecosystem we have inherited from our parents and grandparents to better prepare learners for their futures. The world has changed and continues to change dramatically—we can't afford to prepare todays learners for yesterday's challenges or even for today's. Over the past five years, our colleagues in the network and we at the Institute for Personalized Learning have learned a lot about what works in schools and what doesn't. We understand and appreciate the crucial role that education leaders play in determining whether to consider, implement, and sustain transformational change; our purpose is to help you maximize the likelihood of success.”

From Bruce’s ‘goldie oldies’ file:

What is a 'committed sardine'?
What we need are committed sardines ( creative teachers) and less blue whales ( Ministry directives)
“Compare the way a blue whale turns around (slowly) with how a school of…. Sardines- which is the same or even greater mass than a blue whale... A school of sardines can almost turn instantly
around – how do they do it?The answer is simple. ‘If you take a careful look at a school of sardines you will notice that although all the fish appear to be swimming in the same direction, at any one time, there will be a small group of sardines swimming in the opposite direction against the flow. As they swim in the opposite direction they create conflict, friction, and discomfort for the rest of the school.’

Listening to silenced voices.
“Who should tell a schools story? Who knows best about what happens in the classrooms? Who is best to judge the quality and effectiveness of teaching For the last decade or so the only voices that have been heard are those of the technocrats of the various Ministries of education as they have imposed their so called ‘efficient' measurable curriculums – this is certainly the case in New Zealand. Students in the process have been turned into consumers and teachers asked to ‘deliver’ the curriculum!”